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Writing Tips


Welcome my Friend and Thank You for joining our Class!

This old One Room Schoolhouse in Roaring Falls serves as our only currently available Classroom.  Due to its small size, we frequently hold classes outdoors under the spreading Chestnut tree, or seated along the edge of the old Stone Bridge.

The classes held here are devoted solely to helpful Writing Tips, and other goodies not directly associated with the Roaring Falls Series.  On occasion I may expound on certain facets of Roaring Falls in examples, as part of a lesson or two.

Because this page could grow quite large over time, rather than having it look like a jumbled up slow loading Blog.  For your, and our mobile visitors convenience, we have divided each Topic and Sub-Topic, placing them on separate Schoolhouse Bookshelves.

Law Enforcement

Welcome to: The recognized titles of law enforcement:

The recognized titles of law enforcement:
In order of jurisdiction and authority within their jurisdiction.

U.S. Marshal or Federal Marshal, Deputy U.S. Marshal, State Marshal, Deputy State Marshal, Sheriff, Deputy Sheriff, Town Marshal*, Deputy Town Marshal*, Chief of Police, Police Officer or Officer.
*Rarely may have statewide and occasionally bi-state jurisdiction.

Although we often see the job title "Marshal" erroneously spelled "Marshall", in the U.S. the later is a person's name, not the title of a person in law enforcement.

Forget everything you have seen on Oaters and TV Westerns like HorseDust!

U.S. Marshal:

The U.S. Marshal's Service was established in 1789, to train and appoint U.S. Federal Marshals.  A U.S. Federal Marshal's jurisdiction has no bounds and often extends into reciprocal foreign countries.

State Marshal:

State Marshal is normally an assigned executive administrative title, that is not a part of the judicial system.  Their duty is normally the enforcement of judgments and court orders.  A further duty of a State Marshal is the implementation of the constitutional rights of individuals to access courts and due remedies.  Most State Marshal's are sworn law enforcement officers and in that capacity have the power to arrest and uphold the law within their jurisdiction.


The office of County Sheriff, occasionally titled High Sheriff, is an elected term position and is normally the highest law enforcement officer of a county, including holding authority over a Federal Marshal within the Sheriff's own county.  A county rarely offers the position of Marshal, so in most counties, the Sheriff serves as an arm of the county court.  The duties of a Sheriff inside incorporated municipalities and cities is often restricted to court duties, the warrant serving process and prisoner transport.  The Sheriff's department covers all areas of the county outside of a town or city limits, unless an agreement with them is established.  Although most Sheriff's and Deputy Sheriff's jurisdiction are limited to within the counties border, several may be assigned as State Marshal's, in order to cross county lines in pursuit of a criminal, but do not have the power to make an arrest* outside of their county.  The local County Sheriff or a Deputy Sheriff will be called to make the official arrest.
*May vary across different states.

Town Marshal:

An incorporated Town's Trustee's shall determine if their Legislative Branch desires to appoint a Town Marshal or have the Town Marshal elected by the citizens for a fixed term.  Prior to incorporation, in a Town created by Patent, the Board of Freeholders normally does not have Trustees or the governing authority to establish offices.  As such they cannot provide their own enforcement services and rely on the County Sheriff for police protection.  Often with the appointment or election of a Town Marshal, an acting Chief of Police is named by the Executive Branch.  Until a Town becomes a City, the Town Marshal is often also the acting Chief of Police, the Fire Chief and the Street Commissioner.

Chief of Police:

This title is usually only an honorary title given to the Town Marshal until the incorporated Town grows large enough to become a Fourth-Class City.  It is not uncommon for the Trustee's of a Town to become Aldermen of their new City.  The office of Town Marshal normally ceases and the Town Marshal continues as the new Chief of Police, and now answers to the Mayor.  However, many new Cities will retain the office of Town Marshal and add Deputy Marshal's until they establish a Department of Public Safety, which normally include Fire, Police and occasionally Ambulance as a temporary combined force until separated, and their own Court Systems become more refined.

Police, Firemen and Public Services:

The trained individuals filling these positions are hired by the Cities Mayor and Board of Aldermen often through a Commission composed of both appointed and elected officers.

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Copyright © 2012, '15, '18 by Dutch Rhudy

Document Revision Date 12/11/2019 Applicable To This Page Only